1. Eratosthenes of Cyrene (276 BC – 194 BC), ancient Greek scientist, the head of the Alexandrian library. He was one of the first scientists who made the hypothesis that the Earth was a sphere.
2. Claudius Ptolemy (c. AD 87 – c. AD 165) ancient Greek astronomer, mathematician, music theorist and geographer. From 127 to 151 he lived in Alexandria were he made astronomical observations. Claudius Ptolemy is one of the most significant figures in science of the late Hellenistic period. In astronomy, Ptolemy was second to none for a whole millennium – from Hipparchus of Nicaea (2nd century BC) to Biruni (10th-11th centuries AD). Ptolemy formulated a complex geocentric model of the solar system including epicycles. The extent to which Ptolemy’s works were influenced by earlier observers is a contentious issue. There is an assumption that Ptolemy`s astronomical catalog was a more refined version of the catalog created earlier by Hipparchus of Nicaea. However, modern scientists are not inclined to blame Ptolemy because his work is considered to be a reference book and even modern reference books do not always specify the authors of the materials.
3. Ptolemy’s geographical map.
4.The figure of celestial bodies is an illustration of the geocentric system of the world, made by the Portuguese cartographer Bartolomeu Velho in 1568. It is kept in the national library of France.
5. Nicolaus Copernicus (19 February 1473, Thorn – 24 May 1543, Frombork), Polish astronomer, mathematician, economist, cleric. He is best known as the author of the heliocentric model of the solar system, which triggered the first scientific revolution. Reflecting on Ptolemy’s model of the world, Copernicus was amazed at its complexity and artificiality and, after studying works of ancient philosophers, especially Nicetus of Syracuse and Philolaus, he came to the conclusion that the Sun, not the Earth, was the immovable center of the solar system. On this basis, Copernicus explained seeming intricate motions of the planets quite simply, but, since he didn’t know at the time true trajectories of the planets and thought they were circles, he had to retain epicycles and deferents of ancient scientists to explain their nonuniform motion.
The most important and almost the only work by Copernicus, the result of his 40-year work, is De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (“On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres”). The work was published in Nuremberg in 1543; it’s divided into 6 parts (books) and was printed under supervision of the best disciple of Copernicus – Rheticus.
6. Heliocentric system by Nicolaus Copernicus.
7. Tycho Brahe (14 December 1546, Knudstrup, Denmark – 24 October 1601, Prague), astronomer, astrologer and alchemist of the Renaissance. He was the first scientist to explain a supernova explosion. He was Most noted for the accuracy of his celestial observations. Tycho Brahe perfected many devices for astronomical observations. His ideas were further developed in the works of such famous scientists as Kepler and Newton.
8, 9, 10, 11. Tycho Brahe’s instruments that he used for celestial observations.
12. Johannes Kepler (27 December 1571, Weil der Stadt – 15 November, 1630, Regensburg), German mathematician, astronomer, optician and astrologer. Kepler developed the ideas of Copernicus about heliocentrism of the solar system discovered the three laws of planetary motion, and proved that planets move in elliptical orbits. The laws of planetary motion discovered by Kepler provided the basis for Newton’s law of universal gravitation. Newton proved mathematically that all Kepler’s laws were the effects of the law of gravitation.
13. Galileo Galilei (15 February 1564, Pisa – 8 January 1642, Arcetri, near Florence), Italian physicist, mechanic, astronomer, philosopher and mathematician who had significant influence on the science of his time. He was the first scientist who used a telescope to observe of celestial bodies and made a number of outstanding astronomical discoveries. During his lifetime Galilei was a strong supporter of the heliocentric system of the solar system that aroused serious opposition from the Catholic Church.
14. Christiaan Huygens (14 April 1629 – 8 July 1695) was a Dutch physicist, mathematician, astronomer and inventor, who is widely regarded as one of the greatest scientists of all time and a major figure in the scientific revolution. In physics, Huygens made groundbreaking contributions in optics and mechanics, while as an astronomer he is chiefly known for his studies of the rings of Saturn and the discovery of its moon Titan. As an inventor, he improved the design of the telescope with the invention of the Huygenian eyepiece. His most famous invention, however, was the invention of the pendulum clock in 1656, which was a breakthrough in timekeeping and became the most accurate timekeeper for almost 300 years. Because he was the first to use mathematical formulae to describe the laws of physics, Huygens has been called the first theoretical physicist and the founder of mathematical physics.
In 1659, Huygens was the first to derive the now standard formula for the centripetal force in his work De vi centrifuga. The formula played a central role in classical mechanics and became known as the second of Newton’s laws of motion. Huygens was also the first to formulate the correct laws of elastic collision in his work De motu corporum ex percussion, but his findings were not published until after his death in 1703. In the field of optics, he is best known for his wave theory of light, which he proposed in 1678 and described in 1690 in his Treatise on Light, which is regarded as the first mathematical theory of light. His theory was initially rejected in favor of Isaac Newton’s corpuscular theory of light, until Augustin-Jean Fresnel adopted Huygens’ principle in 1818 and showed that it could explain the rectilinear propagation and diffraction effects of light. Today this principle is known as the Huygens–Fresnel principle.
Huygens invented the pendulum clock in 1656, which he patented the following year. In addition to this invention, his research in horology resulted in an extensive analysis of the pendulum in his 1673 book Horologium Oscillatorium, which is regarded as one of the most important 17th-century works in mechanics. While the first part of the book contains descriptions of clock designs, most of the book is an analysis of pendulum motion and a theory of curves. In 1655, Huygens began grinding lenses with his brother Constantijn in order to build telescopes to conduct astronomical research. He designed a 50-power refracting telescope with which he discovered that the ring of Saturn was «a thin, flat ring, nowhere touching, and inclined to the ecliptic.» It was with this telescope that he also discovered the first of Saturn’s moons, Titan. He eventually developed in 1662 what is now called the Huygenian eyepiece, a telescope with two lenses, which diminished the amount of dispersion.
15. Sir Isaac Newton (4 January 1642 – 20 March 1727 according to the Gregorian calendar), great English physicist, mathematician and astronomer. He was the author of the fundamental work “Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy” in which he described the law of universal gravitation and the so-called Newton’s laws that had laid the foundations of classical mechanics. Newton devised differential and integral calculus, the theory of color value and many other mathematical and physical theories.
Newton solved two fundamental tasks: the creation of axiomatic basis for mechanics that actually transferred this science into the category of strong mathematical theories; the creation of dynamics connecting the behavior of the body with characteristics of the external influences (forces).
Furthermore, Newton ultimately “buried” the ingrained concept dating back to ancient times that the laws of motion of earthly and celestial bodies were completely different. In his world model the whole universe obeys the same laws of physics.
16. Albert Einstein (14 March 1879, Ulm, German Empire – 18 April 1955, Princeton, New Jersey, U.S.A.), one of the creators of modern theoretical physics, the winner of the 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics. He developed several significant physics theories: special theory of relativity (1905, according to this theory – the law of the interrelation between mass and energy: Е = mc2), the general theory of relativity (1907-1916), quantum theory of the photoelectric effect and thermal capacity, Bose–Einstein quantum statistics, statistic theory of Brownian motion which had laid the foundation for the theory of fluctuations, the theory of stimulated emission. Einstein predicted “quantum teleportation” and the Einstein-de Haas gyromagnetic effect. He revisited the conception of the physical nature of space and time and developed a new theory of gravitation to displace the Newton’s one.
17. Jules Gabriel Verne (8 February 1828, Nantes, France– 24 March 1905, Amiens), French geographer, well-known writer, classic of adventure literature – his works contributed greatly not only to the formation of science fiction, but also triggered practical work in space exploration. The idea of man’s travelling to the moon spread in the minds of people and was realized in 20th century.
18. Konstantin Eduardovich Tsiolkovsky (17 September [O.S. 5 September] 1857, Izhevskoye, Ryazan Governorate, Russian Empire – 19 September 1935, Kaluga, Russian SFSR, Soviet Union) Russian and Soviet self-taught scientist, researcher, school teacher, founder of modern cosmonautics. Tsiolkovsky validated the derivation of the jet propulsion equation, came to the conclusion about necessity of “rocket trains” — prototypes of multistage rockets; he was an author of works on aerodynamics, aeronautics, sci-fi works, representative of Russian cosmism, supporter and propagandist of the ideas of space exploration. Tsiolkovsky suggested settling outer space with people using orbital space stations. He also proposed the idea of space elevators, trains with hovercraft lift pads.
19. Hermann Julius Oberth (25 June 1894 – 28 December 1989), outstanding scientist and engineer in the area of astronautics and rocket production. From 1922 to 1928 Oberth made sure that he was not alone. In 1922 the scientist entered into correspondence with Robert Goddard (1882-1945) who sent Oberth his book “A Method of Reaching Extreme Altitudes” as a present from America. In 1924 Oberth first learned about works by Tsiolkovsky who also sent him his book in 1925.
20. Wernher von Braun (23 March 1912, Wirsitz, Posen Province, Prussia – 16 June 1977, Alexandria, Virginia, U.S.A.) — German and American scientist, spacecraft designer. In the USA he was seen as the founding father of American space program. In 1937 Wernher von Braun joined the National Socialist Party to participate in the “retaliation weapon” project — ballistic missile FAU-2 that could reach London in 6 minutes; in 1940 he received the title SS-Sturmbannführer (assault unit leader); in 1945 he surrendered to Americans. Since 1960 Wernher von Braun was a member of USA National Aeronautics and Space Administration, (NASA), director of NASA Space Flight Center and also the head of “Saturn” carrier rocket and “Apollo” spacecrafts development.
21. Photograph of the rocket FAU-2.
22. Sergei Pavlovich Korolev (30 December 1906 [O.S. 12 January 1907], Zhytomyr – 14 January 1966, Moscow) – Soviet scientist, designer and organizer of the production of spacecrafts and rocket weapons in the USSR; the founder of practical cosmonautics; the most important person of the 20th century in the field of space technology. With the first artificial satellite placement in orbit in 1957 he initiated a fundamentally new era in human history – the space age. Sergei Korolev is the creator of Soviet strategic intermediate and intercontinental-range missiles. His development works had a great value for the progress of Soviet missile weapon and his input in the organization and development of the practical cosmonautics is of world significance. Korolev was the creator of rocket and space technologies that provided strategic parity and made USSR advanced space-rocket power. On August 17, 1933 rocket GIRD had been successfully launched for the first time. The main task assigned to chief designer, Korolev, and all organizations that were working on missile armament, was the creation of an analog of the rocket FAU-2 from the domestic materials. But in 1947 there was issued a resolution on development of new ballistic rockets with larger flight range than FAU-2 had: 3000 km. In 1948 Korolev began flight tests of the ballistic rocket R-1 (analog of FAU-2) and put it into service in 1950.
23. Photograph of the rocket R-1.
24. Sputnik-1 was the first artificial satellite that was launched into orbit by the USSR on October 4, 1957. The code name for the satellite is PS-1 (Prosteyshiy Sputnik-1 or Elementary Satellite-1). It was launched from the 5th scientific research polygon of the USSR Ministry of Defense “Tyuratam” (later the station was named “Baikonur Cosmodrome”). The satellite body consisted of two semi-shells with docking ribs interconnected with 36 bolts. In the upper semi-shell there were two aerials, each of which consisted of two pins 2,4 m and 2,9 m long. The satellite looked like a sphere 1,5 m in diameter with four aerials. On the satellite there were placed two radio transmitters with the power supply.
25. Vostok-1 was a spaceship of the “Vostok” series, the first spacecraft that carried a man into the Earth orbit. on April 12, 1961 aboard the spaceship “Vostok” Soviet cosmonaut-pilot Yuri Alekseyevich Gagarin committed the world’s first flight to outer space. The spaceship was launched from Baikonur Cosmodrome at 09:07 a.m. Moscow time (06:07:00 UTC). Vostok-1 made a full orbit around the Earth and landed at 10:55 a.m. (07:55:00 UTC) near the village Smelovka in the Saratov region.
Mass of the spacecraft — 4,73 t
Length (without aerials) — 4,4 m
Maximum diameter — 2,43 m
Orbital inclination — 64,95°
Nodal period — 89,34 min
Perigee – 181 km
Apogee – 327 km
The launch of “Vostok-1” on April 12, 1961 confirmed the high scientific and technical level of USSR and accelerated the development of space program in USA. This flight confirmed the possibility of normal human staying in outer space. Yuri Gagarin became one of the most famous people in the world.
26. Lunokhod-1, the first unmanned lunar vehicle. It was carried to the Moon by Luna-17 (Soviet interplanetary station) on November 17, 1970 where it worked until October 4th, 1971. Lunokhod-1 was intended to study characteristics of the lunar surface, radioactive and X-ray space radiation on the moon, chemical composition and soil properties. Automatical interplanetary station Luna-17 with Lunokhod-1 started on November 10, 1970 and on November 15 Luna-17 entered the orbit of the artificial moon satellite. On November 17, 1970 the station landed safely on the Sea of Rains and Lunokhod-1 descended to the lunar surface. During its 322 days of operations on the Moon, Lunokhod-1 travelled 10549m and transmitted 211 lunar panoramas and 25 000 photographs.
27. Mir («Salyut-8») a Soviet (later Russian) orbital space station, a complicated multipurpose scientific-research complex. Base (Core) unit was launched into orbit on February 20, 1986. Over the next 10 years other six modules were docked. On March 23, 2001 the station was sunk in the waters of the Pacific. The Duration of the stay in the Earth orbit was 15 years.
The project of the station was started in 1976 when Scientific Production Association “Energiya” (Eng. energy) released technical proposals to establish improved durable OS. In August 1978 the schematic design of the new station was released. In February 1979 the works on creating the new generation station, its base unit, on-board scientific equipment began. But by the beginning of 1984 all resources were used for the “Buran” programme and the work on the project was practically stopped. Thanks to Grigory Romanov, Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union the work continued: he gave the task to complete the work on the station by the 27th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.
Since 1995, the station has been visited by foreign crews: in total, 15 visiting crews, 14 of which were international with astronauts from Syria, Bulgaria, Afghanistan, France (5 times), Japan, Great Britain, Austria, Germany (2 times), Slovakia, Canada. As part of the “Shuttle–Mir” Program there have been implemented 7 short-term visiting expeditions aboard “Atlantis” and 1 expedition aboard “Endeavour”, during which the station was visited by 34 astronauts.
28. “Soyuz TMA-6” was a frequently used spaceship. “Soyuz” is a name of series of Soviet and Russian many-placed multi-seated spaceships for flights in near-earth orbit, crew size – 3, mass – 7, 170 kg (“Soyuz TMA”), length – 7,9 m, average diameter – 2,25 m, maximum diameter – 2,72 m, habitation capacity 3,5 + 5 m3.
29. Apollo-11 was a manned spaceship of the Apollo series in which people reached the surface of another celestial body – the Moon – for the first time. Neil Armstrong was the spacecraft commander, Michael Collins piloted the command module and Buzz Aldrin piloted the lunar module. In the spaceship there were the command module (sample 107) and the lunar module (sample LM-5). For the command module the astronauts chose the code name “Columbia” and for the lunar module — “Eagle”. The weight of the spaceship is 43, 9 tons. “Columbia” is the name of statue on the Congress building in Washington, DC and also the name of the ship in which Jules Verne’s characters flew to the moon. the Emblem of the flight was an eagle above the surface of the Moon holding an olive branch in its talons. Saturn V (sample AS-506) was used for launching. The purpose of the mission was formulated as follows: “To land on the moon and return to Earth”. The external on-board camera mounted on the lunar module provided live stream of Armstrong’s exit on the lunar surface. Armstrong came down to the lunar surface on July 21, 1969 at 02:56:15 UTC. Having come down to the lunar surface, he said: “That’s one small step for a man, one giant leap for mankind”. Aldrin came down to the lunar surface in about 15 minutes after Armstrong. The total mission duration on the lunar surface was 21 hours and 36 minutes.
30. Footprint on the Moon.
31. ISS (International Space Station) is a manned space station used as a multipurpose space research complex. ISS is a collaborative international project, in which sixteen countries take part (in alphabetical order): Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Great Britain, Italy, Japan, Netherlands, Norway, Russia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, USA.
32. The Mars rover “Spirit” is one of the American Mars rovers for exploration of the red planet. In total, two rovers are traveling across the Martian surface – “Spirit” and “Opportunity”. In the Gusev crater Mars rover detected traces of salt and high concentration of such chemical elements as sulfur and magnesium. In Johannes Brückner’s opinion, an employee of the Max Planck Chemical Institute, the presence of these elements shows that the ground of the Gusev crater contains quite a significant quantity of magnesium sulphate – salt that is highly soluble in water and pretty common on the Earth. The Mars rover discovered hematite on Mars – mineral that is formed on the Earth in a humid environment. That leads us to think that once there was just the same environment on Mars as on Earth.
Furthermore, in the orbit there is an automatic research laboratory of The European Space Agency “Mars Express”. With the help of “Mars Express” detailed maps of Mars were created. Actually, on the Internet such projects of the “Google” company as “Google Earth”, “Google Moon”, “Google Mars” are easily accessible where everyone has an opportunity to watch the corresponding planet through “the eyes of a satellite”.
33. Sunset on Mars, photographed by American mars rover. It turned out that the sunset on mars is blue (the sky is brown-red).
34. Version of color scheme of the habitation module in the rocket “Soyuz-M” designed by Galina Balashova, one of the first architects who participated in the Soviet space program.
35. View in longitudinal section of the moonbase designed by the architect Igor Kozlov taking part in the Soviet space programme in the days of the space race between USSR and USA.
36. Project of moon base “MoonBaseTwo” designed in architecture and design bureau “Architecture and vision”.
37. Project of a moon base designed in NASA.
38. The project of futuristic Martian transport “Mars Cruiser One” designed in architecture and design bureau “Architecture and vision”.
39. The project of a Martian base designed in NASA. Nasa martian and moon projects evidently lack architectural and design work. Their objects look like kegs on legs and vehicles like space suit on wheels.
40. Graduation project “The house on the moon as a machine for accommodation and work”. The work has been performed in Samara State University of Architecture and Building at the Faculty of Design by an undergraduate student A.P.Rakov under the supervision of S.A.Malakhov and E.A. Repin.
The project involves the construction of two habitable modules – the main module and the control module. The main module is designed to accommodate four inhabitants, and the control module – three. The function of the control module is to control the present resources. For collective decision-making there must be an odd number of opinions. The minimal number of an odd collective is three. The main module implements development and introduction of innovations. In this module there can be and must be several collective opinions. The Space-planning solution is based on the following principle positions: the object (lunar station) consists of two turned to each other modules; on the turned to each other surfaces there are portholes, the most important engineering communications and all the equipment that informs of the module status. Such construction of the object provides the first settlers with more comfortable accommodation: the lunar station’s population will have an opportunity to observe through the portholes not an endless grey desert, but activity of another object (the effect of presence). Moreover, in the case of an accident on one of the objects, people can shelter in the second one. Any deviation from the normal functioning of one of the objects will be observable from portholes of the second object. For design of such constructions there was chosen some exact location in space. In the present case, the constructions are located on the lunar surface. NORTH-WEST QUADRANT; southern part of the Sea of Rains; 20,5 degrees North, 21,8 degrees East. Southern ledge of the crater «Pytheas». If in the construction there will be used radically different methods of construction The Form of the future lunar and Martian buildings could be such that would exclude a man from the process of extraterrestrial construction and be fully automated. In this regard the technology of 3D printing “Three Dimensional Printing”, recently developed in Massachusetts Institute of Technology looks very promising. 3D printing is developed in MIT technology for fast and flexible production of details, prototypes, finished parts and instruments directly from the CAD model. This technology makes it possible to create details of any configuration and material, including ceramics, metals, polymers and compounds. Furthermore, it has become possible to manage the control over substantive constituent element, microstructure and surface structure. 3D printing works on the principle of layerwise formation of products. From the computer (CAD) model of the detail special cutting algorithm draws detailed configuration for every layer. Every layer begins with the spreading of thin powder coating on the surface of powder subbase. Using technology, similar to ink-jet printing, binder material selectively connects particles in the places where an object should be formed. The Piston that supports powder subbase before printing the new layer descends in such a way that the next powdery layer can be scattered and selectively bonded. This process is repeated from layer to layer until the process is completed. After the heat treatment, the unbounded powder should be removed, leaving the produced part. With the help of the layers, created from the blend powder, there can be made overhanging sizes, cutouts and internal volumes (provided that there is a hole for free outlet of the powder). So far 3D Printing technology is a self-sustaining dynamically developing business.
41. In 2010 the suborbital touristic space glider “Space Ship Two” of the company “Virgin Galactic” should begin regular flights to space from “Spaceport America”.
42. The architectural bureau “Foster + Partners” won the international bidding for the construction of the world’s first private tourist spaceport “The New Mexico Spaceport Authority Building” or “Spaceport America”. The architects managed to develop the rational plan of spaceport that is similar in appearance to a stingray or spaceship “Millenium Falcon” from “Star Wars”, if you like. The spaceport will be divided into several zones, one of which will be for tourists and another one – for pilot-astronauts. The balance between accessibility and secrecy certainly has been taken into account: the passengers will receive full access to all sites of the spaceport, however, some zones, for example, the dispatching office, will be possible to observe only from the outside – the direct access to it will be limited.